Without medical help, death occurs within hours of the onset of symptoms.
Cholera does not show any symptoms during the cultivation period, which lasts 3-5 days. During a cholera attack, a patient can lose more than 50 liters of fluid without treatment. An untreated person will die of dehydration. Death with fluid loss of 10% – 15% of total body weight usually occurs within hours.
Cholera most often threatens illiterate and poor people living in the vicinity of polluted waters, who do not boil the water before consumption. Without medical help, death occurs within hours of the onset of symptoms.
Where are the greatest risks of occurrence
Outbreaks can spread quickly, especially in overcrowded communities and in living conditions where there is insufficient access to clean water, waste collection and private toilets. Due to population displacement, destruction of infrastructure or inadequate public services, cholera is a serious risk after a natural disaster or in times of conflict. The situation can be particularly problematic during the rainy season, which washes away not only houses but also toilets, and contaminated water accumulates over large areas.
Rehydration and administration of antibiotics are essential and must occur almost immediately.
A quick response is essential to prevent the spread of a cholera outbreak. Rapidly implementing health promotion activities – educating people about how to help limit the spread – plus water and sanitation activities, setting up treatment centers and vaccinations as part of emergency response can help limit the spread of the epidemic and reduce the number of people who fall. sick or die.
While oral vaccine has been shown to be effective in preventing cholera during outbreaks, current strategies that require two doses are logistically difficult to use in emergencies. We know from previous experience and scientific evidence that the strategy of a single dose of oral cholera vaccine is not only safe, but also easy to implement and can prevent or reduce the spread of the disease during an epidemic.
The fight against cholera is relatively simple in most cases. People who suffer from mild to moderate forms of it are able to recover quickly with the help of fluid therapy and oral rehydration salts. Severely dehydrated patients may require intravenous fluids and hospitalization. In these cases, they should be admitted to a cholera treatment center. If the disease is not treated, the mortality rate it causes can reach 50%, with adequate medical care it is less than 2%.
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